Volume 3 Issue 4
Dec.  2012
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Spencer G. Sealy, Todd J. Underwood. 2012: Egg discrimination by hosts and obligate brood parasites: a historical perspective and new synthesis. Avian Research, 3(4): 274-294. doi: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0042
Citation: Spencer G. Sealy, Todd J. Underwood. 2012: Egg discrimination by hosts and obligate brood parasites: a historical perspective and new synthesis. Avian Research, 3(4): 274-294. doi: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0042

Egg discrimination by hosts and obligate brood parasites: a historical perspective and new synthesis

doi: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0042

nster. Our work on avian brood parasitism has been funded chiefly by grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

k and an anonymous reviewer for commenting on the manuscript and C.M. McLaren for translating two papers authored by Bernhard Rensch. Permission to use the photograph of Rensch was granted by N. Sachser on behalf of the Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Mü

We thank J.A. Hare, A. Lotem, Peter Adamí

  • Received Date: 30 Nov 2012
  • With the knowledge that cuckoos and cowbirds lay their eggs parasitically, and that some hosts eject parasitic eggs, ornithologists began to ponder the question of how host females discriminate between a foreign egg and their own eggs, wondering how hosts "know" which egg to remove. Results of one of the first uncontrolled experiments were inappropriately interpreted to imply ejection was based on discordancy, with hosts simply ejecting the egg in the minority, or the "odd-looking" egg. Controlled experiments eventually revealed that hosts first learn the appearance of own their eggs and discriminate between them and any odd egg in their nest, regardless of which egg type is in the minority. Recent work has shown that discordancy may play a role in discrimination by males mated successively with females that lay polymorphic eggs. We examine the details of the early experiments, in light of recent advances in studies of egg recognition. An ability to recognize eggs also has been extended, implicitly, to include obligate brood parasites, as it underlies several hypotheses in explanation of the behavior of parasites toward their hosts. Egg recognition in parasites, however, has not been experimentally confirmed, nor has a mechanism been identified by which parasites could discriminate between their own eggs and the other eggs in a nest. We review hypotheses (parasite competition, egg removal and multiple parasitism, mafia, farming) that require the ability of obligate brood parasites to discriminate eggs at different levels and the potential mechanisms used by parasites to recognize their own eggs and suggest experiments to test for egg discrimination. An assessment of the egg recognition ability of parasites is germane to our understanding of how parasites counteract defenses of hosts.


  • loading
  • Ali S. 1931. The origin of mimicry in cuckoo eggs. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 34:10671070.
    Arcese P, Smith JNM, Hatch MI. 1996. Nest predation by cowbirds and its consequences for passerine demography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93:46084611.
    Avils JM, Soler JJ, Prez-Contreras T. 2006. Dark nests and egg colour in birds: a possible functional role of ultraviolet reflectance in egg detectability. Proc R Soc Lond B, 273:28212829.
    Avils JM, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Rskaft E, smul M, Mller AP. 2006. Rapid increase in cuckoo egg matching in a recently parasitized Reed Warbler population. J Evol Biol, 19:19011910.
    Avils JM, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Rskaft E, Mller AP. 2007. Envormental conditions influence egg color of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and their parasite, the Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 61:475485.
    Baldamus E. 1892. Das Leben der euorpischen Kuckucke. Parey, Berlin.
    Becking JH. 1981. Notes on the breeding of Indian cuckoos. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 78:201231.
    Blyth E. 1835. Observations on the cuckoo. Mag Nat Hist, 8:325340.
    Bogale BA, Kamata N, Mioko K, Sugita S. 2011. Quantity discrimination in Jungle Crows, Corvus macrorhynchos. Anim Behav, 82:635641.
    Brewer TM. 1840. Wilsons American Ornithology. Otis, Broaders, Boston.
    Brooker MG, Brooker LC. 1989. The comparative breeding behaviour of two sympatric cuckoos, Horsefields Bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis and the Shining Bronze-cuckoo C. lucidus, in Western Australia: a new model for the evolution of egg morphology and host specificity in avian brood parasites. Ibis, 131:528547.
    Brooker LC, Brooker MG. 1990. Why are cuckoos host specific? Oikos, 57:301309.
    Čapek V. 1896. Beitrge zur Fortpflanzungsgeschichte des Kuckucks. Ornithol Jahrbuch, 7: 4172, 102118, 146157, 165183.
    Carpenter GDH. 194142. Observations and experiments in Africa by the late C. F. M. Swynnerton on wild birds eating butterflies and the preferences shown. Proc Linn Soc Lond, 154:1034.
    Chance E[P]. 1922. The Cuckoos Secret. Sidgwick and Jackson, London.
    Chance EP. 1940. The Truth about the Cuckoo. Country Life, London.
    Cherry MI, Bennett ATD. 2001. Egg colour matching in an African cuckoo, as revealed by ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectrophotometry. Proc R Soc Lond B, 268:565571.
    Clark L, Mason JR. 1989. Sensitivity of Brown-headed Cowbirds to volatiles. Condor, 91:922932.
    Cott HB. 1940. Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Davies NB. 1999. Cuckoos and cowbirds versus hosts: co-evolutionary lag and equilibrium. Ostrich, 70:7179.
    Davies NB. 2000. Cuckoos, Cowbirds and Other Cheats. Poyser, London.
    Davies NB, Brooke MdL. 1988. Cuckoos versus Reed Warblers: adaptations and counteradaptations. Anim Behav, 36:262284.
    Davies NB, Brooke MdL. 1989. An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts. I. Host egg discrimination. J Anim Ecol, 58:207224.
    Davies NB, Brooke MdL. 1998. Cuckoos versus hosts: experimental evidence for co-evolution. In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 5979.
    Dawkins R, Krebs JR. 1979. Arms races between and within species. Proc R Soc Lond B, 205:489511.
    Dufty AM Jr. 1983. Variation in the egg markings of the Brown-headed Cowbird. Condor, 85:109111.
    Friedmann H. 1964. The history of our knowledge of avian brood parasitism. Centaurus, 10:282304.
    Grtner K. 1981. Das Wegnehmen von Wirtsvogeleiern durch den Kuckuck (Cuculus canorus). Ornithol Mitt, 33:15131.
    Gehringer F. 1979. Etude sur le pillage par le Coucou, Cuculus canorus, des ufs de la Rousserolle effarvatte. Nos Oiseaux, 35:116.
    Gesner C. 1669. Vogelbuch. Wilhelm Serlins, Frankfurt-am-Main.
    Gibbs HL, Sorenson MD, Marchetti K, Brooke MdL, Davies NB, Nakamura H. 2000. Genetic evidence for female host-specific races of the Common Cuckoo. Nature, 407:83186.
    Gill FB, Wright M. 2006. Birds of the World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
    Gurney JH. 1899. The economy of the cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Trans Norfolk Norwich Nat Hist Soc, 6:365384.
    Hagelin JC, Jones IL. 2007. Bird odors and other chemical substances: a defense mechanism or overlooked mode of intraspecific communication? Auk, 124:741761.
    Hamilton WJ, III, Orians GH. 1965. Evolution of brood parasitism in altricial birds. Condor, 37:361382.
    Hann HW. 1937. Life history of the oven-bird in southern Michigan. Wilson Bull, 49:145237.
    Higuchi H. 1998. Host use and egg color of Japanese cuckoos. In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 8093.
    Honza M, Požgayov M, Prochzka P, Tkadlec E. 2007. Consistency in egg rejection behaviour: responses to repeated brood parasitism in the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Ethology, 113:344351.
    Honza M, Taborsky B, Taborsky M, Teuschl Y, Vogl W, Moksnes A, Rskaft E. 2002. Behaviour of female Common Cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, in the vicinity of host nests before and during laying: a radiotelemetry study. Anim Behav, 64:861868.
    Hoover JP. 2003. Multiple effects of brood parasitism reduce the reproductive success of Prothonotary Warblers, Protonaria citrea. Anim Behav, 65:923935.
    Hoover JP, Robinson SK. 2007. Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104:44744483. .
    Jenner E. 1788. Observations on the natural history of the cuckoo. Phil Trans R Soc Lond, 78:219237.
    Jourdain FCR. 1925. A study on parasitism in the cuckoos. Proc Zool Soc Lond, 1925:639667.
    Junker T. 2003. Ornithology and the genesis of the synthetic theory of evolution. Avian Sci, 3:6573.
    Kelly C. 1987. A model to explore the rate of spread of mimicry and rejection in hypothetical populations of cuckoos and their hosts. J Theor Biol, 125:282299.
    Kilner RM. 2006. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds. Biol Rev, 81:383406.
    Kim CH, Yamagishi S, Won PO. 1995. Egg-color dimorphism and breeding success of the Crow Tit (Paradoxornis webbianus). Auk, 112:831839.
    Kim DW. 2006. Egg discrimination ability of Paradoxornis webbianus and antiparasitic behavior against brood parasitism. MSc thesis, Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea.
    Lahti DC, Lahti AR. 2002. How precise is egg discrimination in weaverbirds? Anim Behav, 63:11351142.
    Langmore NE, Stevens M, Maurer G, Kilner RM. 2009. Are dark cuckoo eggs cryptic in host nests? Anim Behav, 78:461468.
    Lee JW, Kim DW, Yoo JC. 2005. Egg rejection by both male and female Vinous-throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis webbianus. Integr Biosci, 9:211213.
    Lee Y. 2008. Egg discrimination by the vinous-throated parrotbill, a host of the common cuckoo that lays polychromatic eggs. MSc thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Leverkhn P. 1891. Fremde Eier im Nest: ein Beitrag zur Biologie der Vgel. Friedlnder und Sohn, Berlin.
    Liang W, Yang C, Antonov A, Fossy F, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Rskaft E, Shykoff JA, Mller AP, Takasu F. 2011. Sex roles in egg recognition and egg polymorphism in avian brood parasitism. Behav Ecol, 23:397402.
    Lindholm AK. 1997. Evolution of host defences against avian brood parasitism. PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Lotem A, Nakamura H, Zahavi A. 1991. Rejection of cuckoo eggs in relation to host age: a possible evolutionary equilibrium. Behav Ecol, 3:128132.
    Lotem A, Nakamura H, Zahavi A. 1995. Constraints on egg discrimination and cuckoo-host co-evolution. Anim Behav, 49:11851209.
    Lottinger AJ. 1775. Le coucou. Discours apologtique, ou mmoire sur le coucou dEurope. JB Hiacinthe LeClerc, Nancy, France.
    Lottinger AJ. 1795. Histoire du coucou dEurope. FG Levrault, Strasbourg, France.
    Lucas AHS. 1887. On the production of colour in birds eggs. Trans Proc R Soc Victoria, 24:5260.
    Lyon BE. 2003. Egg recognition and counting reduce costs of avian conspecific brood parasitism. Nature, 422:495499.
    McMaster DG, Neudorf, DLH, Sealy SG, Pitcher TE. 2004. A comparative analysis of laying times in passerine birds. J Field Ornithol, 75:113122.
    Marshall GAK. 1938. [Obituary of] Mr. C.F.M. Swynnerton, C.M.G. Nature, 142:198199.
    Mayfield H. 1960. The Kirtlands Warbler. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
    Mayfield H. 1965. Chance distribution of cowbird eggs. Condor, 67:257263.
    Mayr E, Provine wb (eds). 1980. The Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Martnez JG, Soler JJ, Soler M, Burke T. 1998. Spatial patterns of egg laying and multiple parasitism in a brood parasite: a non-territorial system in the Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius). Oecologia, 117:286294.
    Mason P, Rothstein SI. 1986. Coevolution and avian brood parasitism: cowbird eggs show evolutionary response to host discrimination. Evolution, 40:12071214.
    McEwan AJ, Joy MK. 2011. Monitoring a New Zealand freshwater fish community using passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology; lessons learned and recommendations for future use. NZ Mar Freshwater Res, 45:121133.
    McLaren CM, Sealy SG. 2000. Are nest predation and brood parasitism correlated in Yellow Warblers? A test of the cowbird predation hypothesis. Auk, 117:10561060.
    McLaren CM, Woolfenden BE, Gibbs HL, Sealy SG. 2003. Genetic and temporal patterns of multiple parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) on Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Can J Zool, 81:16.
    Mermoz ME, Reboreda JC. 1999. Egg-laying behaviour by Shiny Cowbirds parasitizing Brown-and-yellow Marshbirds. Anim Behav, 58:873882.
    Moksnes A. 1992. Egg recognition in Chaffinches and Bramblings. Anim Behav, 44:993995.
    Moksnes A, Rskaft E, Braa AT. 1991. Rejection behavior by Common Cuckoo hosts towards artificial brood parasite eggs. Auk, 108:348354.
    Moksnes A, Rskaft E, Solli MM. 1994. Documenting puncture ejection of parasitic eggs by Chaffinches Fringilla coelebs and Blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla. Fauna norv. Series C, Cinclus, 17:115118.
    Moreno J, Osorno JL. 2003. Avian egg colour and sexual selection: does eggshell pigmentation reflect female condition and genetic quality? Ecol Lett, 6:803806.
    Moskt C, Bn M, Szkley T, Komdeur J, Lucassen RWG, van Boheemen LA, Hauber ME. 2010. Discordancy or template-based recognition? Dissecting the cognitive basis of the rejection of foreign eggs in hosts of avian brood parasites. J Exp Biol, 213:19761983.
    Moskt C, Honza, M. 2002. European Cuckoo Cuculus canorus parasitism and hosts rejection behaviour in a heavily parasitized Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus population. Ibis, 144:614622.
    Nakamura T, Cruz A. 2000. The ecology of egg-puncture behavior in the Shiny Cowbird in southwestern Puerto Rico. In: Smith JNM, Cook TL, Rothstein SI, Robinson SK, Sealy SG (eds) Ecology and Management of Cowbirds and Their Hosts. University of Texas Press, Austin, pp 178186.
    Nakamura H, Miyazawa Y. 1997. Movements, space use and social organization of radio-tracked Common Cuckoos during the breeding season in Japan. Jap J Ornithol, 46:2354.
    Newton A. 1869. Cuckows eggs. Nature, 1:7476.
    Nolan V Jr. 1978. The ecology and behavior of the Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor. Ornithol Monogr, No. 26.
    Orians GH, Rskaft E, Beletsky LD. 1989. Do Brown-headed Cowbirds lay their eggs at random in the nests of Red-winged Blackbirds. Wilson Bull, 101:599605.
    Ortega CP, Ortega JC, Cruz A. 1994. Use of artificial Brown-headed Cowbird eggs as a potential management tool in deterring parasitism. J Wildl Manage, 58:488492.
    Pagel M, Mller AP, Pomiankowski A. 1998. Reduced parasitism by retaliatory cuckoos selects for hosts that rear cuckoo nestlings. Behav Ecol, 9:566572.
    Payne RB. 1977. The ecology of brood parasitism in birds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 8:128.
    Palomino JJ, Martin-Vivaldi M, Soler M, Soler JJ. 1998. Females are responsible for ejection of cuckoo eggs in the Rufous Bush Robin. Anim Behav, 56:131136.
    Peer BD, Sealy SG. 2001. Mechanism of egg recognition in the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). Bird Behav, 14:7173.
    Peer BD, Sealy SG. 2004. Fate of grackle (Quiscalus spp.) defenses in the absence of brood parasitism: implications for long-term parasite-host coevolution. Auk, 121:11721186.
    Peer BD, Rothstein SI, Delaney KS, Fleischer RC. 2007. Defence behaviour against brood parasitism is deeply rooted in mainland and island scrub-jays. Anim Behav, 73:5563.
    Pepperberg IM. 2001. Avian cognitive abilities. Bird Behav, 14: 5170.
    Picman J. 1989. Mechanism of puncture resistance of eggs of Brown-headed Cowbirds. Auk, 106:577583.
    Poulton EB. 1890. The colours of animals: their meaning and use, especially considered in the case of insects. Int Sci Ser, no. 68.
    Poulsen H. 1953. A study of incubation responses and some other behavior patterns in birds. Vidensk Medd fra Dansk Naturh Foren, 115:1131.
    Po?gayov M, Prochzka P, Honza M. 2009. Sex-specific defence behavior against brood parasitism in a host with female-only incubation. Behav Processes, 81:3438.
    Preston FW. 1948. The cowbird (M. ater) and the cuckoo (C. canorus). Ecology, 29:115116.
    Rasmussen JL, Sealy SG, Underwood TJ. 2009. Video recording reveals the method of ejection of Brown headed Cowbird eggs and no cost in American Robins and Gray Catbirds. Condor, 111:570574.
    Reboreda JC, Clayton NS, Kacelnik A. 1996. Species and sex differences in hippocampus size in parasitic and non-parasitic cowbirds. Neuroreport, 7:505508.
    Rennie J. 1831. The Architecture of Birds. Charles Knight, London.
    Rensch B. 1924. Zur Entstehung der Mimikry der Kuckuckseier. J Ornithol, 72:461472.
    Rensch B. 1925. Verhalten von Singvgeln bei Aenderung des Geleges. Ornithol Monatschr, 33:169173.
    Rey E. 1892. Altes und Neues aus dem Haushalte des Kuckucks. Freese, Leipzig.
    Rivers JW, Young S, Gonzalez EG, Horton B, Lock J, Fleischer RC. 2012. High levels of relatedness between Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestmates in a heavily parasitized host community. Auk, 129:623631.
    Roper TJ. 1999. Olfaction in birds. Adv Stud Behav, 28:247332.
    Rothstein SI. 1970. An experimental investigation of the defenses of the hosts of the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). PhD dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Rothstein SI. 1974. Mechanisms of avian egg recognition: possible learned and innate factors. Auk, 91:796807.
    Rothstein SI. 1975a. An experimental and teleonomic investigation of avian brood parasitism. Condor, 77:250271.
    Rothstein SI. 1975b. Mechanisms of avian egg-recognition: do birds know their own eggs? Anim Behav, 23:268278.
    Rothstein SI. 1975c. Evolutionary rates and host defenses against avian brood parasitism. Am Nat, 109:161176.
    Rothstein SI. 1977. Cowbird parasitism and egg recognition of the Northern Oriole. Wilson Bull, 89:2132.
    Rothstein SI. 1978. Mechanisms of avian egg-recognition: additional evidence for learned components. Anim Behav, 26:671677.
    Rothstein SI. 1982a. Successes and failures in avian egg and nestling recognition with comments on the utility of optimality reasoning. Am Zool, 22:547560.
    Rothstein SI. 1982b. Mechanisms of avian egg recognition: which parameters elicit responses by ejecter species? Behav Ecol Soiciobiol, 11:229239.
    Rothstein SI. 1990. A model system for coevolution: avian brood parasitism. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 21:481508.
    Rothstein SI, Robinson SK. 1998. The evolution and ecology of avian brood parasitism. In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 356.
    Schmaltz G, Somers CM, Sharma P, Quinn JS. 2006. Non-destructive sampling of maternal DNA from the external shell of bird eggs. Conserv Genet, 7:543549.
    Schulze-Hagen K, Stokke BG, Birkhead TR. 2009. Reproductive biology of the European Cuckoo Cuculus canorus: early insights, persistent errors and the acquisition of knowledge. J Ornithol, 150:116.
    Sealy SG. 1992. Removal of Yellow Warbler eggs in association with cowbird parasitism. Condor, 94:4054.
    Sealy SG. 1996. Evolution of host defenses against brood parasitism: implications for puncture-ejection by a small passerine. Auk, 113:346355.
    Sealy SG. 2009. Cuckoos and their fosterers: uncovering details of Edward Blyths field experiments. Arch Nat Hist, 36:129135.
    Sealy SG, Bazin RC. 1995. Low frequency of observed cowbird parasitism on Eastern Kingbirds: host rejection, effective nest defense, or parasite avoidance? Behav Ecol, 6:140145.
    Sealy SG, Guigueno MF. 2011. Cuckoo chicks evicting their nest mates: coincidental observations by Edward Jenner in England and Antoine Joseph Lottinger in France. Arch Nat Hist, 38:220228.
    Sealy SG, Lorenzana JC. 1998. Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) do not recognize their own eggs. Bird Behav, 12:5766.
    Sealy SG, Neudorf DL. 1995. Male Northern Orioles eject cowbird eggs: Implications for the evolution of rejection behavior. Condor, 369375.
    Sealy SG, McMaster DG, Peer BD. 2002. Tactics of obligate brood parasites to secure suitable incubators. In: Deeming DC (ed) Avian Incubation: Behaviour, Environment, and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 254269.
    Sealy SG, Neudorf DL, Hill DP. 1995. Rapid laying by Brown-headed Cowbirds and other parasitic birds. Ibis, 137:7684.
    Sherry DF, Vaccarino AL, Buckenham K, Herz RS. 1989. The hippocampal complex of food-storing birds. Brain Behav Evol, 34:308317.
    Sherry DF, Forbes ML, Khurgel M, Ivy GO. 1993. Females have a larger hippocampus than males in the brood-parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90:78397843.
    Smith JNM, Taitt MJ, Zanette L, Myers-Smith IH. 2003. How do Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) cause nest failure in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia)? A removal experiment. Auk, 120:772783.
    Soler JJ, Mller AP, Soler M. 1998. Mafia behavior and the evolution of facultative virulence. J Theor Biol, 191:267277.
    Soler JJ, Sorci G, Soler M, Mller AP. 1999. Change in host rejection behavior mediated by the predatory behavior of its brood parasite. Behav Ecol, 10:275180.
    Soler M, Soler JJ, Martnez JG. 1998. Duration of sympatry and coevolution between the Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamater glandarius) and its primary host, the Magpie (Pica pica). In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 113142.
    Soler M, Fernndez-Morante, Espinosa F, Martn-Vivaldi M. 2012. Pecking but accepting the parasitic eggs may not reflect ejection failure: the role of motivation. Ethology, 118:662672.
    Soler M, Martn-Vivaldi M, Prez-Contreras T. 2002. Identification of the sex that is responsible for recognition and the method of ejection of parasite eggs in some potential Common Cuckoo hosts. Ethology, 108:10931101.
    Soler M, Soler JJ, Martnez JG. 1997. Great Spotted Cuckoos improve their reproductive success by damaging magpie host eggs. Anim Behav, 54:12271233.
    Soler M, Soler JJ, Martnez JG, Mller AP. 1995. Magpie host manipulation by Great Spotted Cuckoos: evidence for an avian mafia? Evolution, 49:770775.
    Strausberger BM, Rothstein SI. 2009. Parasitic cowbirds may defeat defense by causing rejecters to misimprint of cowbird eggs. Behav Ecol, 20:691699.
    Stuart Baker EC. 1913. The evolution of adaptation in parasitic cuckoos eggs. Ibis, Series 10, 1:384398.
    Stuart Baker EC. 1942. Cuckoo Problems. Witherby, London.
    Swynnerton CFM. 1916. On the coloration of the mouths and eggs of birds. II. On the coloration of eggs. Ibis, Series 10, 4:529606.
    Swynnerton CFM. 1918. Rejections by birds of eggs unlike their own: with remarks on some of the cuckoo problems. Ibis, Series 10, 6:127154.
    Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2002. Adaptive significance of egg coloration. In: Deeming DC (ed) Avian Incubation: Behaviour, Environment, and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 280298.
    Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2006. Parameters of Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater egg recognition and ejection in Warbling Vireos Vireo gilvus. J Avian Biol, 37:457466.
    Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2008. UV reflectance of eggs of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and acceptor and rejecter hosts. J Ornithol, 149:313321.
    Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2011. Behavior of Warbling Vireos ejecting real and artificial cowbird eggs. Wilson J Ornithol, 123:395400.
    Underwood TJ, Sealy SG, McLaren CM. 2004. Experiments on egg discrimination in two North American corvids: further evidence for retention of egg rejection. Can J Zool, 82:13991407.
    Victoria JK. 1972: Clutch characteristics and egg discriminative ability of the African Village Weaverbird Ploceus cucullatus. Ibis, 114:367376.
    Weatherhead PJ. 1989. Sex ratios, host-specific reproductive success, and impact of Brown-headed Cowbird. Auk, 106:358366.
    Welty JC. 1962. The life of birds. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Whittaker DJD, Reichard DG, Dapper AL, Ketterson ED. 2009. Behavioral responses of nesting female Dark-eyed Juncos Junco hyemalis to hetero- and conspecific passerine preen oils. J Avian Biol, 40:579583.
    Wilson A. 1810. American Ornithology. Vol. 2. Bradford and Inskeep, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Wuketits FM. 2006. Bernhard Rensch, German evolutionist. Biol Theory, 1:410413.
    Wyllie I. 1981. The Cuckoo. Universe, New York.
    Yang C, Cai Y, Liang W. 2012. Species identification of sympatric cuckoo nestlings in a multiple-cuckoo system, China. Chinese Birds, 3:108112.
    Zahavi A. 1979. Parasitism and nest predation in parasitic cuckoos. Am Nat, 113:157159.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (4073) PDF downloads(1930) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint