Volume 3 Issue 2
Jun.  2012
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Iftikhar HUSSAIN, Asmat-un-NISA, Sangum KHALIL. 2012: Population biology of the Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) in an agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan. Avian Research, 3(2): 91-102. doi: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0009
Citation: Iftikhar HUSSAIN, Asmat-un-NISA, Sangum KHALIL. 2012: Population biology of the Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) in an agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan. Avian Research, 3(2): 91-102. doi: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0009

Population biology of the Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) in an agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan

doi: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0009
  • Received Date: 21 Sep 2011
  • The field biology of the Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) was studied in 2009 in an agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar area, an important range of its distribution in Pakistan. The bird density was estimated as 1.59±0.39 (mean±standard error) birds per ha in crop fields and 0.87±0.14 birds per ha in forest tracks, with some seasonal fluctuations in its habitat. All bird nests were located on the ground in vegetation mainly comprised of Desmostachia bipinnata, Acacia modesta, Imperata cylindrical, Zizipus jujuba and Euphorbia spp. Egg laying was recorded during the spring and summer months, with a mean egg laying span of 6±0.36 days (range 5-7 days) and a mean clutch size of 7±0.36 (range of 6-8 eggs). The mean incubation period was 20.6±0.50 days (range 19-22 days). Out of a total number of 42 eggs recorded, 32 hatched (76.19% success) with a mean hatching rate of 5.33±1.22 eggs per clutch. The fledgling success was estimated as 3.83±0.83 per clutch (63.08%). The species was found to be omnivorous and euryphagus in its feeding habit. There were 10 identifiable food items in the diet of the species, consisting of seven plant species (Pennisetum typhoideum, Sorghum bicolor, S. halepense, Prosopis juliflora, Phaseolus radiates, Carthemus axycantha and Acacia sp.), two insect species (Coptotermes formosanus and Formica rufa) and one grit.


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