Volume 13 Issue 1
Mar.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Xiaocai Tan, Shilong Liu, Eben Goodale, Aiwu Jiang. 2022: Does bird photography affect nest predation and feeding frequency?. Avian Research, 13(1): 100036. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100036
Citation: Xiaocai Tan, Shilong Liu, Eben Goodale, Aiwu Jiang. 2022: Does bird photography affect nest predation and feeding frequency?. Avian Research, 13(1): 100036. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100036

Does bird photography affect nest predation and feeding frequency?

doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100036
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail address: aiwuu@gxu.edu.cn (A. Jiang)
  • Received Date: 01 May 2022
  • Accepted Date: 06 May 2022
  • Available Online: 07 Jul 2022
  • Publish Date: 17 May 2022
  • Bird photography is a popular and growing form of ecotourism that contributes to the economic growth of local communities, but its disturbance to bird reproduction remains understudied. We worked in a tropical forest of southern China, which has experienced a sharp increase in the number of photographers in recent years. We compared nests that were photographed and those that were not, in their nest predation and parental feeding rates. Including nests of 42 species, the results demonstrate that the predation rate of nests that were not photographed (incubation stage: 43.3% of 194 nests; nestling stage: 34.5% of 110 nests) was significantly higher than that of photographed ones (incubation: 2.4% of 83 nests; nestling: 11.1% of 81 nests). Among different nest types, open cup nests in shrub and trees were most affected by photography, in both incubation and nestling stages. Of five factors investigated, including three natural factors (nest stage, structure and position), and two anthropogenic factors (photography and distance to forest edge), only photographic disturbance and nest structure had significant effects (open nests had higher predation). The feeding frequency at nests when photographers were present was not strongly different from when they were not present. Human activity therefore had no negative effects on the birds, but showed a positive effect on their nesting success, in terms of reducing nest predation rates. However, there needs to be further assessment of other aspects of nesting (e.g., clutch size, duration of nestlings in nests), and other kinds of stress responses (e.g., hormonal changes), before the total effect of bird photography can be understood.


  • loading
  • Bartoń, K., 2013. MuMIn: multi-modal inference. Model selection and model averaging based on information criteria (AICc and alike). http://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/MuMIn/index.html. (Accessed 18 August 2021)
    Basnet, D., Yang, J.M., Dorji, T., Xiao, Q.L., Lama, A.K., Yue, M.W., et al., 2021. Bird photography tourism, sustainable livelihoods, and biodiversity conservation: A case study from China. Mou. Res. Dev. 4, D1-D9 doi: 10.3126/jrdn.v4i3.39945
    Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., Walker, S., 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J. Stat. Softw. 67, 1-48
    Blumstein, D.T., Fernandez-Juricic, E., Zollner, P.A., Garity, S.C., 2005. Inter-specific variation in avian responses to human disturbance. J. Appl. Ecol. 42, 943-953 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01071.x
    Caro, T., 2005. Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois
    Chalfoun, A.D., Martin, T.E., 2010. Parental investment decisions in response to ambient nest-predation risk versus actual predation on the prior nest. Condor. 112, 701-710 doi: 10.1525/cond.2010.090242
    Cox, W.A., Thompson III, F.R., Faaborg, J., 2012. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator. Landsc. Ecol. 27, 659-669 doi: 10.1007/s10980-012-9711-x
    Degregorio, B.A., Chiavacci, S.J., Benson, T.J., Sperry, J.H., Weatherhead, P.J., 2016. Nest predators of North Smerican birds: Continental patterns and implications. BioScience. 66, 655-665 doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw071
    Eggers, S., Griesser, M., Ekman, J., 2004. Predator-induced plasticity in nest visitation rates in the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus). Behav. Ecol. 16, 309-315
    Ellenberg, U., Setiawan, A.N., Cree, A., Houstonb, D.M., Seddon, P.J., 2007. Elevated hormonal stress response and reduced reproductive output in Yellow-eyed penguins exposed to unregulated tourism. Gen. C. Endoc. 152, 54-63 doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.02.022
    Feng, N., Wei, F., Zhang, K.H., Gu, D., 2018. Innovating rural tourism targeting poverty alleviation through a multi-industries integration network: The case of Zhuanshui Village, Anhui Province, China. Sustainability. 10, 2162 doi: 10.3390/su10072162
    Francis, C.D., Ortega, C.P., Cruz, A., 2009. Noise pollution changes avian communities and species interactions. Curr. Biol. 19, 1415-1419 doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.06.052
    Gao, S.L., Huang, S.S., Huang, Y.C., 2009. Rural tourism development in China. Int. J. Tour. Res. 11, 439-450 doi: 10.1002/jtr.712
    Goodfellow, D.K., 2017. Couples and Avitourism: A mixed methods study of north american birdwatchers. Ph.D thesis. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW
    Gotmark, F., 1992. The effects of investigator disturbance on nesting birds. In: Power, D.M. (Eds.), Current Ornithology, vol 9. Springer, Boston, MA
    Hua, F.Y., Sieving, K.E., Fletcher Jr, R.J., Wright, C.A., 2014. Increased perception of predation risk to adults and offspring alters avian reproductive strategy and performance. Behav. Ecol. 25, 509-519 doi: 10.1093/beheco/aru017
    Ibanez-Alamo, J.D., Sanllorente, O., Soler, M., 2012. The impact of researcher disturbance on nest predation rates: A meta-analysis. Ibis. 154, 5-14 doi: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.2011.01186.x
    Ibanez-Alamo, J.D., Soler, M., 2010. Investigator activities reduce nest predation in blackbirds Turdus merula. J. Avian. Biol. 41, 208-212 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2009.04805.x
    Jiang, A.W., Jiang, D.M., Zhou, F., Goodale, E., 2017a. Nest-site selection and breeding ecology of Streaked Wren-Babbler (Napothera brevicaudata) in a tropical limestone forest of southern China. Avian Res. 8, 28 doi: 10.1186/s40657-017-0086-1
    Jiang, A.W., Zhou, F., Liu, N.F., 2014. Significant recent ornithological records from the limestone area of south-west Guangxi, south China, 2004-2012. Forktail. 30, 122-129
    Jiang, A.W., Zhou, F., Wu, Y.H., Liu, N.F., 2013. First breeding records of Nonggang Babbler (Stachyris nonggangensis) in a limestone area in southern China. Wilson J. Ornithol. 125, 609-615 doi: 10.1676/12-147.1
    Jiang, D.M., Nong, Z.Q., Jiang, A.W., Luo, X., 2015. Breeding ecology and nest site selection of Red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus) in limestone area, northern tropical region of China. Chinese J. Zool. 50, 359-365. (in Chinese)
    Jiang, A.W., Jiang, D.M., Goodale, E., Wen, Y.G., 2017b. Nest predation on birds that nest in rock cavities in a tropical limestone forest of southern China. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 10, 154-158 doi: 10.1016/j.gecco.2017.03.004
    Jiang, A.W., Yang, G., Pagani-Nunez, E., Jiang, D.M., 2017c. Ecology of two Pittas (Pitta soror and Pitta nympha) in limestone forests of South China. J. Nat. Hist. 51, 1929-1941 doi: 10.1080/00222933.2017.1355490
    Kolstoe, S., Cameron, T.A., 2017. The non-market value of birding sites and the marginal value of additional species: Biodiversity in a random utility model of site choice by eBird members. Ecol. Econ. 137, 1-12 doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.02.013
    Leighton, P.A., Horrocks, J.A., Kramer, D.L., 2010. Conservation and the scarecrow effect: Can human activity benefit threatened species by displacing predators? Biol. Conserv. 143, 2156-2163 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.05.028
    Mancuso, M., Battiato, S., 2001. An introduction to the digital still camera technology. J. Syst. Res. 2, 1-8
    Martin, T.E., 1993. Nest predation and nest sites. Bioscience. 43, 523-532 doi: 10.2307/1311947
    Martin, T.E., Li, P.J., 1992. Life history traits of open- vs. cavity-nesting birds. Ecology. 73, 579-592 doi: 10.2307/1940764
    Martin, T.E., Scott, J., Menge, C., 2000. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 267, 2287-2293 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1281
    Miller, J.R., Hobbs, N.T., 2000. Recreational trails, human activity, and nest predation in lowland riparian areas. Landsc. Urban. Plan. 50, 227-236 doi: 10.1016/S0169-2046(00)00091-8
    Quinn, J.L., Ueta, M., 2008. Protective nesting associations in birds. Ibis. 150, 146-167 doi: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.2008.00823.x
    Richardson, T.W., Gardali, T., Jenkins, S.H., 2009. Review and meta-analysis of camera effects on avian nest success. J. Wildl. Manage. 73, 287-293 doi: 10.2193/2007-566
    Ricklefs, R.E., 1969. An analysis of nesting mortality in birds. Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology 9, 1-48 doi: 10.5479/si.00810282.9
    Seibold, S., Hempel, A., Piehl, S., Bassler, C., Brandl, R., Rosner, S., et al., 2013. Forest vegetation structure has more influence on predation risk of artificial ground nests than human activities. Basic. Appl. Ecol. 14, 687-693 doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2013.09.003
    Sekercioglu, C.H., 2002. Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities. Environ. Conserv. 29, 282-289 doi: 10.1017/s0376892902000206
    Shipley, N.J., Larson, L.R., Cooper, C.B., Dale, K., LeBaron, G., Takekawa, J., 2019. Do birdwatchers buy the duck stamp? Hum. Dimens. Wildl. 24, 61-70 doi: 10.1080/10871209.2018.1517227
    Slagsvol, T., 1982. Clutch size variation in passerine birds: The nest predation hypothesis. Oecologia. 54, 159-169 doi: 10.1007/BF00378388
    Slater, C., Cam, G., Yin, Q., Yang, L., Weston, M.A., 2019. Camera shy? Motivations, attitudes and beliefs of bird photographers and species-specific avian responses to their activities. Biol. Conserv. 237, 327-337 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.07.016
    Stephens, S.E., Koons, D.N., Rotella, J.J., Willey, D.W., 2004. Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nesting success: A review of the evidence at multiple spatial scales. Biol. Conserv. 115, 101-110 doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00098-3
    Verissimo, D., Kanagavel, A., Seshadri, K.S., Raghavan, R., 2013. The tragedy of the nature photography commons. Asian J. Conserv. Biol. 2, 1-2
    Vetter, D., Rucker, G., Storch, I., 2013. A meta-analysis of tropical forest edge effects on bird nest predation risk. Biol. Conserv. 159, 382-395 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.12.023
    Vincze, E., Seress, G., Lagisz, M., Nakagawa, S., Dingemanse, N.J., Sprau, P., 2017. Does urbanization affect predation of bird nests? A meta-analysis. Front. Ecol. Evol. 5, 29 doi: 10.24193/subbeuropaea.2017.3.02
    Wee, Y.C., Tsang, K.C., 2008. The changing face of birding in Singapore. Nat. Singapore. 1, 97-102
    Zanette, L.Y., White, A.F., Allen, M.C., Clinchy, M., 2011. Perceived predation risk reduces the number of offspring songbirds produce per year. Science. 334, 1398-1401 doi: 10.1126/science.1210908
    Zhou, F., Jiang, A.W., 2008. A new species of babbler (Timaliidae: Stachyris) from the Sino-Vietnamese border region of China. Auk. 125, 420-424 doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-79039-6_106
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(1)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (39) PDF downloads(1) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint