Volume 13 Issue 1
Mar.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Hongyan Yao, Pengcheng Wang, Nan Wang, Philip J.K. McGowan, Xingfeng Si, Jianqiang Li, Jiliang Xu. 2022: Functional and phylogenetic structures of pheasants in China. Avian Research, 13(1): 100041. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100041
Citation: Hongyan Yao, Pengcheng Wang, Nan Wang, Philip J.K. McGowan, Xingfeng Si, Jianqiang Li, Jiliang Xu. 2022: Functional and phylogenetic structures of pheasants in China. Avian Research, 13(1): 100041. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100041

Functional and phylogenetic structures of pheasants in China

doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100041
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail address: xujiliang@bjfu.edu.cn (J. Xu)
  • Received Date: 27 Mar 2022
  • Accepted Date: 28 May 2022
  • Rev Recd Date: 04 May 2022
  • Available Online: 11 Oct 2022
  • Publish Date: 04 Jun 2022
  • Biodiversity has been subjected to increasing anthropogenic pressures. It is critical to understand the different processes that govern community assembly and species coexistence under biogeographic processes and anthropogenic events. Pheasants (Aves: Phasianidae) are highly threatened birds and China supports the richest pheasant species worldwide. Unravelling the spatial patterns and underlying factors associated with multi-dimensional biodiversity of species richness (SR), functional diversity (FD), and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of pheasants in China is helpful to understand not only the processes that govern pheasant community assembly and species coexistence, but also pheasant biodiversity conservation. We used a total of 45 pheasant species in China and analyzed the SR, FD, PD, and functional and phylogenetic structures by integrating species distribution maps, functional traits and phylogenies based on 50 ​km ​× ​50 ​km grid cells. We further used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models to explore the factors that determined these patterns. The southern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), Hengduan Mountains, southwestern Mountains, the east of the Qilian Mountains, the Qinling, southern China displayed higher SR, FD, and PD, which were determined by elevation, habitat heterogeneity, temperature seasonality, and vegetation cover. Elevation primarily determined the functional and phylogenetic structures of the pheasant communities. Assemblages in the highlands were marked by functional and phylogenetic clustering, particularly in the QTP, whereas the lowlands in eastern China comprised community overdispersion. Clustered pheasant assemblages were composed of young lineages. Patterns of functional and phylogenetic structures and richness-controlled functional and phylogenetic diversity differed between regions, suggesting that phylogenetic structures are not a good proxy for identifying functional structures. We revealed the significant role of elevation in pheasant community assemblages in China. Highlands interacted with community clustering, whereas lowlands interacted with overdispersion, supporting the environmental filtering hypothesis. Biogeographical drivers other than anthropogenic factor determined biodiversity of pheasants at the present scale of China. This study provides complementary background resources for multi-dimensional pheasant biodiversity and provides insights into avian biodiversity patterns in China.

     

  • loading
  • Blomberg, S.P., Garland, T., Ives, A.R., 2003. Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57, 717-745. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00285.x.
    Boakes, E.H., McGowan, P.J.K., Fuller, R.A., Ding, C.Q., Clark, N.E., O'Connor, K., et al., 2010. Distorted views of biodiversity: spatial and temporal bias in species occurrence data. PLoS Biol. 8, e1000385. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000385.
    Bongaarts, J., 2019. IPBES, 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Popul. Dev. Rev. 45, 680-681. https://doi.org/10.1111/padr.12283.
    Boufford, D.E., 2014. Biodiversity hotspot: China's Hengduan Mountains. Arnoldia 72, 24-35.
    Bowler, D.E., Bjorkman, A.D., Dornelas, M., Myers-Smith, I.H., Navarro, L.M., Niamir, A., et al., 2020. Mapping human pressures on biodiversity across the planet uncovers anthropogenic threat complexes. People Nat. 2, 380-394. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10071.
    Cadotte, M.W., Carboni, M., Si, X., Tatsumi, S., 2019. Do traits and phylogeny support congruent community diversity patterns and assembly inferences? J. Ecol. 107, 2065-2077. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13247.
    Cai, T., Fjeldså, J., Wu, Y., Shao, S., Chen, Y., Quan, Q., et al., 2018. What makes the Sino-Himalayan mountains the major diversity hotspots for pheasants? J. Biogeogr. 45, 640-651. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13156.
    Cardillo, M., Gittleman, J.L., Purvis, A., 2008. Global patterns in the phylogenetic structure of island mammal assemblages. Proc. R. Soc. B. 275, 1549-1556. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0262.
    Cavender-Bares, J., Kozak, K.H., Fine, P.V., Kembel, S.W., 2009. The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology. Ecol. Lett. 12, 693-715. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01314.x.
    Chen, C., Ding, D., Zhao, Y., Wu, Y., Xu, J., Wang, Y., 2019. Correlates of extinction risk in Chinese endemic birds. Avian Res. 10, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-019-0147-8.
    R Core Team, 2020. R: a language and environment for statistical computing.
    Crowe, T.M., Bowie, R.C.K., Bloomer, P., Mandiwana, T.G., Hedderson, T.A.J., Randi, E., et al., 2006. Phylogenetics, biogeography and classification of, and character evolution in, gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes): effects of character exclusion, data partitioning and missing data. Cladistics 22, 495-532. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2006.00120.x.
    Darriba, D., Taboada, G.L., Doallo, R., Posada, D., 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods 9, 772. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2109.
    de Bello, F., Šmilauer, P., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Carmona, C.P., Lososová, Z., Herben, T., et al., 2017. Decoupling phylogenetic and functional diversity to reveal hidden signals in community assembly. Method. Ecol. Evol. 8, 1200-1211. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12735.
    Dehling, D.M., Fritz, S.A., Töpfer, T., Päckert, M., Estler, P., Böhning-Gaese, K., et al., 2014. Functional and phylogenetic diversity and assemblage structure of frugivorous birds along an elevational gradient in the tropical Andes. Ecography 37, 1047-1055. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00623.
    Devictor, V., Mouillot, D., Meynard, C., Jiguet, F., Thuiller, W., Mouquet, N., 2010. Spatial mismatch and congruence between taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity: the need for integrative conservation strategies in a changing world. Ecol. Lett. 13, 1030-1040. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01493.x.
    Ding, Z., Hu, H., Cadotte, M.W., Liang, J., Hu, Y., Si, X., 2021. Elevational patterns of bird functional and phylogenetic structure in the central Himalaya. Ecography 44 (9), 1403–1417. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.05660.
    Dong, L., Heckel, G., Liang, W., Zhang, Y.Y., 2013. Phylogeography of Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera L.) across China: aggregate effects of refugia, introgression and riverine barriers. Mol. Ecol. 22, 3376-3390. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12315.
    Faith, D.P., 1992. Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biol. Conserv. 61, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(92)91201-3.
    Faith, D.P., 1994. Phylogenetic pattern and the quantification of organismal biodiversity. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 345, 45-58. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1994.0085.
    Feng, G., Huang, X., Mao, L., Wang, N., Yang, X., Wang, Y., 2020. More endemic birds occur in regions with stable climate, more plant species and high altitudinal range in China. Avian Res. 11, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-020-00203-y.
    Fjeldså, J., Lovett, J.C., 1997. Geographical patterns of old and young species in African forest biota: the significance of specific montane areas as evolutionary centres. Biodivers. Conserv. 6, 325-346. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018356506390.
    Fritz, S.A., Purvis, A., 2010. Selectivity in mammalian extinction risk and threat types: a new measure of phylogenetic signal strength in binary traits. Conserv. Biol. 24, 1042-1051. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01455.x.
    Gerhold, P., Cahill, J.F., Winter, M., Bartish, I.V., Prinzing, A., 2015. Phylogenetic patterns are not proxies of community assembly mechanisms (they are far better). Funct. Ecol. 29, 600-614. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12425.
    Graham, C.H., Parra, J.L., Rahbek, C., McGuire, J.A., 2009. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 19673-19678. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901649106.
    Graham, C.H., Parra, J.L., Tinoco, B.A., Stiles, F.G., McGuire, J.A., 2012. Untangling the influence of ecological and evolutionary factors on trait variation across hummingbird assemblages. Ecology 93, S99-S111. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0493.1.
    He, X., Luo, K., Brown, C., Lin, L., 2018. A taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic perspective on the community assembly of passerine birds along an elevational gradient in southwest China. Ecol. Evol. 8, 2712-2720. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3910.
    Hu, Y., Fan, H., Chen, Y., Chang, J., Zhan, X., Wu, H., et al., 2021. Spatial patterns and conservation of genetic and phylogenetic diversity of wildlife in China. Sci. Adv. 7, eabd5725. https://https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd5725.
    Hung, C-M., Hung, H-Y., Yeh, C-F., Fu, Y-Q., Chen, D., Lei, F., et al., 2014. Species delimitation in the Chinese bamboo partridge Bambusicola thoracica (Phasianidae; Aves). Zool. Scr. 43, 562-575. doi: 10.1111/zsc.12071
    IUCN., 2020. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2020-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed 18 Aug 2020).
    Jarzyna, M.A., Quintero, I., Jetz, W., 2020. Global functional and phylogenetic structure of avian assemblages across elevation and latitude. Ecol. Lett. 24, 196-207. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13631.
    Kembel, S.W., Cowan, P.D., Helmus, M.R., Cornwell, W.K., Morlon, H., Ackerly, D.D., et al., 2010. Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology. Bioinformatics 26, 1463-1464. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq166.
    Kerr, J.T., Packer, L., 1997. Habitat heterogeneity as a determinant of mammal species richness in high-energy regions. Nature 385, 252-254. https://doi.org/10.1038/385252a0.
    Kissling, W.D., Carl, G., 2008. Spatial autocorrelation and the selection of simultaneous autoregressive models. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 17, 59-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00334.x.
    Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., Tamura, K., 2018. MEGA X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Mol. Biol. Evol. 35, 1547-1549. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy096.
    Legendre, P., Legendre, L.F., 2012. Numerical Ecology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
    Li, J., Li, Q., Wu, Y., Ye, L., Liu, H., Wei, J., et al., 2021. Mountains act as museums and cradles for hemipteran insects in China: Evidence from patterns of richness and phylogenetic structure. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 30 (5), 1070–1085. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13276.
    Lyv, N., Päckert, M., Tietze, D.T., Sun, Y.H., 2015. Uncommon paleodistribution patterns of Chrysolophus pheasants in east Asia: explanations and implications. J. Avian Biol. 46, 528-537. https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.00590.
    MacArthur, R., Levins, R., 1967. The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. Am. Nat. 101, 377-385. https://doi.org/10.1086/282505.
    Machac, A., Janda, M., Dunn, R.R., Sanders, N.J., 2011. Elevational gradients in phylogenetic structure of ant communities reveal the interplay of biotic and abiotic constraints on diversity. Ecography 34, 364-371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06629.x.
    Madge, S., McGowan, P.J., Kirwan, G.M., 2002. Pheasants, Partridges and Grouse: a Guide to the Pheasants, Partridges, Quails, Grouse, Guineafowl, Buttonquails and Sandgrouse of the World. Christopher Helm, London.
    Maire, E., Grenouillet, G., Brosse, S., Villeger, S., 2015. How many dimensions are needed to accurately assess functional diversity? A pragmatic approach for assessing the quality of functional spaces: assessing functional space quality. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 24, 728-740. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12299.
    Mayfield, M.M., Levine, J.M., 2010. Opposing effects of competitive exclusion on the phylogenetic structure of communities. Ecol. Lett. 13, 1085-1093. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01509.x.
    Mazel, F., Mooers, A.O., Riva, G.V.D., Pennell, M.W., 2017. Conserving phylogenetic diversity can be a poor strategy for conserving functional diversity. Syst. Biol. 66, 1019-1027. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syx054.
    Mazel, F., Pennell, M.W., Cadotte, M.W., Diaz, S., Dalla Riva, G.V., Grenyer, R., et al., 2018. Prioritizing phylogenetic diversity captures functional diversity unreliably. Nat. Commun. 9, 2888. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05126-3.
    McGowan, P.J.K., Owens, L.L., Grainger, M.J., 2012. Galliformes science and species extinctions: what we know and what we need to know. Anim. Biodivers. Conserv. 35, 321-331. https://doi.org/10.32800/abc.2012.35.0321.
    Mestre, L.A.M., Cosset, C.C.P., Nienow, S.S., Krul, R., Rechetelo, J., Festti, L., et al., 2020. Impacts of selective logging on avian phylogenetic and functional diversity in the Amazon. Anim. Conserv. 23, 725-740. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12592.
    Montaño-Centellas, F.A., McCain, C., Loiselle, B.A., 2019. Using functional and phylogenetic diversity to infer avian community assembly along elevational gradients. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 29, 232-245. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13021.
    Pavoine, S., Vallet, J., Dufour, A-B., Gachet, S., Daniel, H., 2009. On the challenge of treating various types of variables: application for improving the measurement of functional diversity. Oikos 118, 391-402. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2008.16668.x.
    Pennington, R.T., Lavin, M., Prado, D.E., Pendry, C.A., Pell, S.K., Butterworth, C.A., 2004. Historical climate change and speciation: neotropical seasonally dry forest plants show patterns of both tertiary and quaternary diversification. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 359, 515-538. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1435.
    Petchey, O.L., Gaston, K.J., 2006. Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward. Ecol. Lett. 9, 741-758. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00924.x.
    Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P., Schapire, R.E., 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol. Model. 190, 231-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026.
    Pollock, L.J., Rosauer, D.F., Thornhill, A.H., Kujala, H., Crisp, M.D., Miller, J.T., et al., 2015. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 370, 20140007. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0007.
    Qu, Y., Ericson, P.G.P., Quan, Q., Song, G., Zhang, R., Gao, B., et al., 2014. Long-term isolation and stability explain high genetic diversity in the Eastern Himalaya. Mol. Ecol. 23, 705-720. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12619.
    Si, X., Cadotte, M.W., Zeng, D., Baselga, A., Zhao, Y., Li, J., et al., 2017. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities. J. Anim. Ecol. 86, 532-542. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12650.
    Svenning, J.C., Eiserhardt, W.L., Normand, S., Ordonez, A., Sandel, B., 2015. The influence of paleoclimate on present day patterns in biodiversity and ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 46, 551-572. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054314.
    Swenson, N.G., 2014. Functional and Phylogenetic Ecology in R. Springer, New York.
    Tang, Z.Y., Wang, Z.H., Zheng, C.Y., Fang, J.Y., 2006. Biodiversity in China's mountains. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4, 347-352. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2006)004[0347:BICM]2.0.CO;2.
    Voskamp, A., Baker, D.J., Stephens, P.A., Valdes, P.J., Willis, S.G., 2017. Global patterns in the divergence between phylogenetic diversity and species richness in terrestrial birds. J. Biogeogr. 44, 709-721. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12916.
    Wang, Z., Fang, J., Tang, Z., Li, X., 2011. Patterns, determinants and models of woody plant diversity in China. Proc. R. Soc. B. 278, 2122-2132. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1897.
    Wang, N., Kimball, R.T., Braun, E.L., Liang, B., Zhang, Z., 2017. Ancestral range reconstruction of Galliformes: the effects of topology and taxon sampling. J. Biogeogr. 44, 122-135. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12782.
    Wang, N., Mao, L., Yang, X., Si, X., Wang, Y., Eiserhardt, W.L., et al., 2020. High plant species richness and stable climate lead to richer but phylogenetically and functionally clustered avifaunas. J. Biogeogr. 47, 1945-1954. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13878.
    Webb, C.O., Ackerly, D.D., McPeek, M.A., Donoghue, M.J., 2002. Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 33, 475-505. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150448.
    Xing, Y., Ree, R.H., 2017. Uplift-driven diversification in the Hengduan Mountains, a temperate biodiversity hotspot. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, E3444-E3451. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616063114.
    Xu, W., Svenning, J.C., Chen, G., Zhang, M., Huang, J., Chen, B., et al., 2019. Human activities have opposing effects on distributions of narrow-ranged and widespread plant species in China. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 26674-26681. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911851116.
    Xu, A., Zhong, M., Tang, K., Wang, X., Yang, C., Xu, H., et al., 2021. Multidimensional diversity of bird communities across spatial variation of land cover in Zoige on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Avian Res. 12, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-021-00259-4.
    Yao, H., Davison, G., Wang, N., Ding, C., Wang, Y., 2017. Post-breeding habitat association and occurrence of the Snow Partridge (Lerwa lerwa) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, west central China. Avian Res. 8, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-017-0066-5.
    Zhang, C., Ding, C., 2007. The distribution pattern of the Galliformes in China. Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 33, 317-323. (in Chinese).
    Zheng, G.M., 2016. Chinese Pheasant. Beijing Science Press, Beijing.
    Zheng, G.M., 2018. A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China. (3rd ed.). Beijing Science Press, Beijing.
    Zheng, G.M., 2021. A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World. second ed. Beijing Science Press, Beijing.
    Zupan, L., Cabeza, M., Maiorano, L., Roquet, C., Devictor, V., Lavergne, S., et al., 2014. Spatial mismatch of phylogenetic diversity across three vertebrate groups and protected areas in Europe. Divers. Distrib. 20, 674-685. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12186.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(5)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (27) PDF downloads(4) Cited by()
    Proportional views

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return